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back

back away(intr)慢慢地退回去(因为遇到某种危险或不愉快的事):

When he took a gun out everyone backd away nervously.

他拿出枪来时,大家都紧张地向后退去。

back out(intr)退出(某事先已同意的联合行动),停止或拒绝给予所允诺的帮助或支持:

He agreed to help but backed out when he found how difficult it was.

他本来同意给予帮助的,但在发现事情有多么困难之后就打退堂鼓了。

back somebody up从道义上或行动上支持:

The headmaster never backed up his staff.(backed them up)If a parent complained about a teacher he assumed that the teacher was in the wrong.

校长从来不给教员们撑腰。凡是有家长给老师提意见时,他总是认为一定是老师不对。

be

be against(tr)反对(常带动名词):

I'm for doing nothing till the police arrive./I'm against doing anything till the police arrive.

我赞成在警察来到以前不采取行动。/我反对在警察到来以前采取任何行动。

be away(intr)(至少有一个晚上)不在家,不在某地

be back(intr)在长期或短暂地离开之后回到原地:

—I want to see Mrs Pitt.Is she in?

—No,I'm afraid she's out at the moment./No,I'm afraid she's awayfor the weekend.

—When will she be back?

—She'll be back in half an hour/next week.

—我想见皮特夫人。她在吗?

—不,恐怕她现在不在。/不,我想她外出度周末了。

—她什么时候回来?

—她半小时后/下周回来。

be for(tr)赞成(常带动名词)

be in(intr)在家或在某个建筑物内

be in for(tr)将要遇上(常跟某种令人不愉快的事):

Did you listen to the weather forecast? I'm afraid we're in for a bumpy flight.

你听气象预报没有?恐怕我们这次航班要很颠簸。

If you think that the work is going to be easy you're in for a shock.

如果你以为这工作将容易,那么你可要大吃一惊了。

be out(intr)短时间不在家/不在某个建筑物里,但并不在外过夜

be over(intr)结束:

The storm is over now;we can go on.

暴风雨过去了;我们可以继续走了。

be up(intr)起床了:

Don't expect her to answer the doorbell at eight o'clock on Sunday morning.She won't be up.

星期日早上8点钟时,别指望她听见门铃响会来开门。她那时还没有起床呢。

be up to(tr)体力或智力足以……(宾语常用it,但也可用动名词):

After his illness the Minister continued in office though he was no longerup to the work/up to doing the work.

部长生病后继续任职,但他已力不胜任了。

be up to something/some mischief/some trick/no good 从事或忙于某种调皮的、不正道的或有害的事/捣鬼:

Don't trust him;he is up to something/some trick.

别信他;他在搞鬼/在耍诡计。

The boys are very quiet.I wonder what they are up to.

男孩子们无声无息了。我不知他们在捣什么鬼。

注意:这里up to的宾语常是某一很不确定的词语,如上面例句所示。这个习语从来不与某一具体明确的事连用。

it is up to someone(常带动词不定式)此事是某人的职责:

It is up to the government to take action on violence.

采取行动对付暴力行为,是政府职责所在。

I have helped you as much as I can. Now it is up to you.

我已尽我所能地帮助你了。现在该看你自己了。(你得靠自己的努力干下去。)

bear

bear out(tr)证实,提供证明:

This report bears out my theory.(bears my theory out/bears it out)

这报告证实了我的理论。

bear up(intr)听到坏消息仍能勇敢支撑,掩饰感情或忧伤:

The news of her death was a great shock to him but he bore up bravely and none of us realized how much he felt it.

她故去的消息对他来讲是个打击,但他勇敢地支撑着,我们谁也没意识到他的感受该有多么强烈。

blow

blow out(tr)吹熄:

The wind blew out the candle.(blew the candle out/blew it out)

风吹灭了蜡烛。

blow up(tr/intr)

(a)用爆炸的方法毁灭,爆炸,被毁:

They blew up the bridges so that the enemy couldn't follow them.(blew the bridges up/blew them up)

他们炸毁了桥,好让敌人不能追上他们。

Just as we got to the bridge it blew up.

我们刚到桥头,桥就炸掉了。

(b)充气,打气,使膨胀:

The children blew up their balloons and threw them into the air.( blew the balloons up/blew them up)

孩子们把气球吹鼓了,扔向空中。

boil

boil away(intr)(液体)因沸腾而挥发完,熬干:

I put the kettle on the gas ring and then went away and forgot about it.

When I returned, the water had all boiled away and the flame had burnt a hole in the kettle.

我把壶放在煤气灶上,然后就走开把这事忘掉了。我回来时,水都烧干了,火把壶底烧出了一个窟窿。

boil over(intr)(液体因沸腾而)溢到容器外面:

The milk boiled over and there was a horrible smell of burning.

牛奶潽了,烧糊的味道极为难闻。

break

break down a door etc.用强力敲破或撞破:

The firemen had to break down the door to get into the burning house.

(break the door down/break it down)

消防员不得不破门而入以便到着火的房子里边去。

break down figures 将一数目分别列在不同项目下以作进一步说明:

You say that 10,000 people use this library.Could you break that down into age-groups?

你说有10,000人使用这所图书馆。你能否按年龄组将数字分解一下?(即说出有多少人是25岁以下的,有多少人是50岁以上的等等)

break down(intr)由于有缺陷或强度不够而坏掉或不再正常运作:

(a)常指人暂时感情支持不住:

He broke down when telling me about his son's tragic death.

他向我谈到他儿子惨死的事时,不能自已了。(他失声痛哭了。)

(b)指丧失精神上的抵抗力:

At first he refused to admit his guilt but when he was shown the evidencehe broke down and confessed.

起初他否认有罪,但给他看证据时,他招架不住而供认了。

(c)指身体健康状况严重恶化:

After years of overwork his health broke down and he had to retire.

在多年劳累之后,他的身体垮了,只好退休。

(d)常指机器坏了:

The car broke down when we were driving through the desert and it tookus two days to repair it.

我们驾车横越沙漠时,汽车坏了,花了两天才修好。

(e)指交涉或谈判的破裂:

The negotiations broke down because neither side would compromise.

因为双方都不肯妥协,谈判破裂了。

break in(intr),break into(tr)

(a)用暴力强行进入:

Thieves broke in and stole the silver.

窃贼破门而入,偷走了银器。

The house was broken into when the owner was on holiday.

屋主外出度假时,有贼破门而入。

(b)突然说话打断别人:

I was telling them about my travels when he broke in with a story of hisown.

我正在告诉他们我旅途中的事,他忽然插嘴讲起他自己的故事来。

break in ?a young horse/pony etc.(tr)训练(马等)以供驾驭使用:

You cannot ride or drive a horse safely before he has been broken in.

在没有把马训练好以前,不管骑它还是用它驾车都是不安全的。

break off(tr/intr)解开,破开,使分裂开或自己破裂开:

He took a bar of chocolate and broke off a bit.(broke a bit off/broke itoff)

他拿出一板巧克力,掰下了一小块。

A piece of rock broke off and fell into the pool at the foot of the cliff.

一块岩石断裂开,掉到悬崖脚下的池塘里。

break off(tr)终止,停止,取消(常跟协议、协商或谈判等):

Ann has broken off her engagement to Tom.(broken her engagement off/broken it off)

安已经取消了同汤姆的婚约。

break off(intr)突然停止说话,突然住口:

They were in the middle of an argument but broke off when someone came into the room.

他们正争吵不休,但有人进屋时他们突然住口了。

break out(intr)

(a)开始,爆发(常用于诸如战争、流行病、火灾等不好的事):

War broke out on 4 Angust.

战争于8月4日爆发。

(b)用暴力方法从监狱等地逃出:

They locked him up in a room but he broke out.

他们把他锁在一间屋里,可是他强行逃出了。(砸开门跑掉了)

The police are looking for two men who broke out of prison last night.

警方正在搜捕昨天晚上越狱逃跑的两名男子。

break up(tr/intr)(使)瓦解,(使)解体:

If that ship stays there she will break up/she will be broken up by the waves.

那艘船如果停泊在那里,就会破的/会被浪头打散的。

The old ship was towed away to be broken up and sold as scrap.

那艘旧船被拖走以便拆散当废铁卖了。

Divorce breaks up a lot of families.(breaks families up/breaks them up)

离婚拆散了许多家庭。

break up(intr)(用于学校的学期、会议、聚会等)散会,放假:

The school broke up on 30 July and all the boys went home for the holidays.

学校在7月30日放假了,男孩子们都回家度假去了。

The meeting broke up in confusion.

会议在一片混乱中散了。

bring

bring someone round(tr;宾语常位于 round 之前)

(a)说服某人接受以前所反对的建议:

After a lot of argument I brought him round to my point of view.

在争辩了很久之后,我说服他转念同意了我的看法。

(b)使恢复知觉:

She fainted with the pain but a little brandy soon brought her round.

她痛得昏厥了,但是一小点白兰地很快使她恢复了知觉。

bring a person or thing round(tr;宾语常位于 round 之前)把人或物带到某人的住所去:

I have finished that book that you lent me;I'll bring it round(to your house)tonight.

你借给我的书我已经看完了;我今晚上把它带(到你家里)来。

bring up(tr)

(a)教育培养儿童:

She brought up her children to be truthful.(brought her children up/brought them up)

她教导她的孩子们要真诚无欺。

(b)提起,谈到:

At the last committee meeting,the treasurer brought up the question of raising the annual subscription.(brought the question up/brought it up)

委员会上一次开会时,财务主管提出了提高会员年费的问题。

burn

burn down(tr/intr)(完全)焚毁(指建筑物):

The mob burnt down the embassy.(burnt the embassy down/burnt it down)

乱民把大使馆焚毁了。

The hotel burnt down before help came.

旅馆在援助到来以前就烧毁了。

明明白白读英语 轻轻松松记单词

You can memorize words in an efficient way if you pronounce them reasonably. Say words correctly, and you will learn them easily. Correct pronunciation means correct spelling of the words. English spelling is not good to guide its pronunciation. But spelling and pronunciation have closed relationship. They match each other perfectly. Sometimes we can pronounce a word according to its spelling. English pronunciation can also guide its spelling. This is a two-way communication.
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