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call

1 call走访,拜访

call at。走访一个地方:

I called at the bank and arranged to transfer some money.

我到银行去了一下,安排了款项过户的事宜。

call for到一个地方去取物或接人:

I am going to a pop concert with Tom.He is calling for me at eightso I must be ready then.

我要和汤姆去听流行歌曲音乐会。他8点钟来接我,因此我必须届时准备好。

Let's leave our suitcases in the left luggage office and call for them later on when we have the car.

咱们可以把行李存放在行李暂存处,等以后有车用时再来取。

call in(intr)同 look in 和口语化的 drop in 意思一样,是来访,来坐坐的意思:

Call in/Look in on your way home and tell me how the interviewment.

你回家的路上来看我一下,告诉我面谈进行得如何。

call on 拜访某人:

He called on all the housewives in the area and asked them to sign the petition.

他走访了这一地区的所有主妇,要求他们在请愿书上签名。

2 call for/in/on 的其他意思

call for(tr)要求,需要(这里的主语常是一个不用来指人的单词或短语,如 the situation 形势/this sort of work 这种工作/this 此事等,宾语则常是一个表示某种性质的词,如 courage 勇气/patience 耐心/a steady hand稳当不抖的手):

The situation calls for tact.

对付这一形势要有策略。

You've got the job! This calls for a celebration.

你得到这份工作了!这需要庆祝一下。

但这里也可以用一个用来指人的主语:

The workers are calling for strike action.

工人们正要求采取罢工行动。

The relations of the dead men are calling for an inquiry.

死者们的亲属要求调查真相。

call in a person/call a person in 派人去找某人来/请某人来家服务(send for 比 call in 更显得主语权势大,因此 call in 是更有礼貌的说法):

It was too late to call in an electrician.(call an electrician in/call him in)

找电工来已太晚了。

There is some mystery about his death; the police have been called in.

他的死有点儿蹊跷;已经去找警察来了。

call on somebody(常带动词不定式)要某人做某事/要某人给予帮助(较为正式的提出要求的方式,主要用于正式场合或演讲中,意味着提出要求的人认为所号召的事是另一人的责任):

The president called upon his people to make sacrifices for the good of their country.

总统号召人民为祖国的利益做出牺牲。

The chairman called on the secretary to read the minutes of the last meeting.

主席要求秘书朗读上次会议的记录。

3 call的其他词组

call off(tr)取消尚未开始的事,放弃已在进行中的事:

They had to call off the match as the ground was too wet to play on.

(call the match off/call it off)

因为场地太湿无法比赛,人们不得不取消这次比赛。

When the fog got thicker the search was called off.

雾愈来愈浓了,只得放弃了搜索。

call out(tr)召唤某人出来处理外面的事(常用于指部队被召集走出营房对付民众骚乱):

The police couldn't control the mob so troops were called out.

警察无法控制乱民,因此出动了军队。

The Fire Brigade was called out several times on the night of 5 November to put out fires started by fireworks.

11月5日晚上,消防队多次奉召出动,以扑灭因燃放焰火而引起的火灾。

Doctors don't much like being called out at night.

医生们不太喜欢夜间出诊。

call up(tr)

(a)征去服兵役:

In countries where there is conscription men are called up at the age of eighteen.(call up men/call men up/call them up)

在实行征兵制的国家里,18岁的男子要应征服役。

(b)给……打电话:

I called Tom up and told him the news.(calld up Tom/called him up)

我给汤姆打电话,把消息告诉他了。

care

not to care about(tr)对……淡漠,不关心……:

The professor said that he was interested only in research;he didn't really care about students.

教授说他只对研究感兴趣;他并不真的关心学生。

care for(tr)

(a)喜欢(很少用于肯定句):

He doen't care for films about war.

他不喜欢战争影片。

(b)照看(除被动态外,较少使用):

The house looked well cared for(= had been well looked after/was ingood condition).

房子看起来照管得很好。

carry

carry on(intr)继续(常指工作或职责):

I can't carry on alone any longer;I'll have to get help.

我无法再一个人继续下去了;我得找人帮忙。

carry on with(tr)与上用法相似:

The doctor told her to carry on with the treatment.

医生告诉她应该继续这种疗法。

carry out(tr)履行(职责),服从(命令),执行(指令),(把威胁要做的事)付诸行动:

You are not meant to think for yourself;you are here to carry out my orders.

你们的职责不是自己思考;叫你们来这里是要你们执行我的命令。

The Water Board carried out their threat to cut off our water supply.

自来水公司董事会把他们的威胁付诸行动,停止供应我们水了。(他们威胁要这样做,也真的这样做了。)

He read the instructions but he didn't carry them out.

他看了指示,但没有遵照执行。

catch

catch up with(tr),catch up(tr/intr)赶上但没超过:

I started last in the race but I soon caught up with the others.(caught them up/cautht up)

我在赛跑中最后一个起跑,但不久就赶上了其他人。

You've missed a whole term;you'll have to work hard to catch up with the rest of the class.(catch them up/catch up)

你缺了整整一学期的课,得努力学习以便赶上同班的其他人。

clean

clean out(tr) a room/cupboard/drawer etc.彻底清理打扫(房间/碗柜/抽屉等):

I must clean out the spare room.(clean the spare room out/clean it out)

我得把那间备用房(客房)彻底清扫一下。

clean up(tr) a mess, eg. anything spilt 清扫(脏物,如撒出的东西):

Clean up any spilt paint.(clean the spilt paint up/clean it up)

如果有溅出来的油漆,把它收拾干净。

clean up(intr)同上用法相同:

These painters always clean up when they've finished.

这几位油漆工完工之后总要把场地打扫干净。

clear

clear away(tr)把物件拿开以便腾出地方:

Could you clear away these papers?(clear these papers away/clear them away)

你能不能把这些文件清除开?

clear away(intr)散开:

The clouds soon cleared away and it became quite warm.

云很快就散开了,天气变得相当暖和。

clear off(intr)走开(指室外) clear out(intr)走开(指室内)二者都是口语用法;作为命令时这样说是相当不礼貌的:

‘You clear off,' said the farmer angrily.‘You've no right to put your caravans in my field without even asking my permission.'

“你们给我走开,”农民愤怒地说,“你们没有权利连我的许可都没征得就把住人的大篷车停在我的地里。”

Clear out! If I find you in this building again,I'll report you to the police.

走开!你要再到这幢建筑里来,我就将你报警了。

clear out(tr)把(房间/碗柜/抽屉等)腾空以便放别的东西:

I'll clear out this drawer and you can put your things in it.(clear this drawer out/clear it out)

我会把这个抽屉腾空,这样你就能把你的东西放在里面了。

clear up(intr)有云或雨后天晴了:

The sky looks a bit cloudy now but I think it will clear up.

现在天看来有点阴,但我想天会晴的。

clear up(tr/intr)收拾整齐干净:

When you are cooking it's best to clear up as you go,instead of leaving everything to the end and having a terrible pile of things to deal with.

烹调时,最好是边干边收拾,而不要把活留到最后而剩下一大堆东西要打扫收拾。

Clear up this mess.(clear this mess up/clear it up)

把这堆乱糟糟的东西收拾干净。

clear up(tr)

(a)完成(某种尚待完成的工作):

I have some letters which I must clear up before I leave tonight.

有几封信我今天晚上走以前必须写完。

(b)侦破(不可思议的怪事、案件等):

In a great many detective stories when the police are baffled an amateur detective comes along and clears up the mystery.(clears it up)

在许多侦探小说中,当警察束手无策时,来了个业余侦探,把案子给破了。

close

close down(tr/intr)永远关闭,停业(指商店或买卖等):

Trade was so bad that many small shops closed down and big shops closed some of their branches down.(closed down some branches/closed themdown)

市面很差,许多小店停业了,大商店也关了一些分店。

close in(intr)逼近,从四面凑近(常用于雾、夜色、敌人等):

As the mist was closing in we decided to stay where we were.

由于雾越来越逼近,我们决定留在原地不动。

close up(intr)缩小间距(指一行人):

If you children closed up a bit there'd be room for another one on this seat.

你们几个孩子要是挤一挤,这座位上还能加一个人。

come

come across/upon(tr)碰巧发现,碰巧找到:

When I was looking for my passport I came across these old photographs.

我在找护照时碰巧找到了这些旧相片。

come along/on(intr)和我一起来,陪伴我去(常用来敦促犹豫不决的人或拖拖拉拉的人):

Come on,or we'll be late.

快点,否则我们要迟到了。

come away(intr)(和我一起)走/离开:

Come away now, It's time to go home.

快走吧。该回家了。

come away/off(intr)自行脱落:

When I pickd up the teapot the handle came away in my hand.

我拿起茶壶时,茶壶掉了而只剩茶壶柄在我手里。

come in(intr),come into( tr)进入:

Someone knocked at my door and I said,‘Come in.'

有人敲我的门,我说:“进来。”

Come into the garden and I'll show you my roses.

到花园里来,我给你看我的玫瑰花。

come off(intr)

(a)(计划或阴谋)成功(用于否定句):

I'm afraid that scheme of yours won't come off.It needs more capital than you have available.

恐怕你那个计划不会成功。它需要的投资不是你能拿得出来的。

(b) 发生,按预先安排的那样发生:

—When is the wedding coming off?

—Next June.

—婚礼什么时候举行?

—6月份。

如果我们说The duchess was to have opened the bazaar(公爵夫人本来是要为义卖主持开幕仪式的),我们的意思是说计划是那样订的,但没有实现(她本安排好要去为它揭幕,但后来不得不取消这一安排)。

(c)(话剧、展览等)结束一轮演出或展出:

‘Lady windermere's Fan'is coming off next week.You'd better hurry if you want to see it.

《少奶奶的扇子》下周要结束演出了。你要想看的话得抓紧点。

come out(intr)

(a)被揭露或发觉(这里的主语常是 the truth 真相/the facts 事实/the whol story 全部内情等;并且一般指有关人士想竭力掩盖的事实即丑闻等):

They deceived everybody till they quarrelled among themselves;then one publicly denounced the others and the whole truth came out.

他们把大家都骗了,直到后来内讧起来,其中一个人公开揭发了别人,这才真相大白。

(b)(书籍)发行:

Her new novel will be coming out in time for the Christmas sales.

她的新小说将赶在圣诞节购物潮时发行。

(c)(污渍)消除,洗掉:

Tomato stains don't usually come out.

西红柿污渍一般洗不净。

come round(intr)

(a)终于接受以前所反对的建议:

Her father at first refused to let her study abroad but he came round(to it)in the end.

她父亲起初反对她去外国念书,但终于回心转意了。(他说可以让她去。)

(b)到某人的家里来:

I'll come round after dinner and tell you the plan.

我晚饭后来转一下,把计划说给你听。

come round/to(intr;to重读) 恢复知觉:

When we found him he was unconscious but he came round/to in half anhour and explained that he had been attacked and robbed.

我们发现他时他已失去知觉,但是半小时后他恢复了知觉,说他遭到殴打抢劫。

come up(intr)

(a) 升到水面,生长出来:

A diver with an aqualung doesn't have to keep coming up for air;he can stay underwater for quite a long time.

备有潜水供氧器的潜水员无需不断升出水面呼吸;他可以在水下停留相当长的时间。

Weeds are coming up everywhere.

杂草到处蔓生。

(b)被提到:

The question of the caretaker's wages came up at the last meeting.

在上次会议中提到了看楼人的工资问题。

come up(intr),come up to(tr)走近,来到能说话的近处:

A policeman was standing a few yards away.He came up to me and said,‘You can't park here.'

几码外站着一位警察。他走过来并对我说:“你不能把车子停放在这里。”

crop

crop up(intr)出现,意外地或偶然地出现(主语常是一个抽象名词如 difficulties 困难/the subject 题目或是一个代词):

At first all sorts of difficulties cropped up and delayed us.Later we learnt how to anticipate these.

起初冒出来了各式各样的困难,耽搁了我们。后来我们学会了如何为这些困难预作准备。

cut

cut down a tree 砍倒树木:

If you cut down all the trees you will ruin the land.(cut the trees down/ cut them down)

你要是砍倒所有的树木,就会把土地给毁了。

cut down(tr) 减少数量:

We must cut down expenses or we'll be getting into debt.

我们得减少支出,否则就要负债了。

‘This article is too long,'said the editor.‘Could you cut it down to 2,000 words?'

“这篇文章太长了,”编辑说,“你能不能把它缩到两千字?”

cut in(intr)在车距极近的不安全情况下并行抢道并插到另一辆车前面:

Accidents are often caused by drivers cutting in.

车祸常由司机抢道插到别的车前面而引起。

cut off(tr)切断、停止供应(宾语可以是水、电、煤气,也可以是被停供的人):

The Company has cut off our electricity supply because we haven't paidour bill.(cut our supply off/cut it off)

因为我们没有付电费,公司断了我们的电。

They've cut off the water/our water supply temporarily because they are repairing one of the main pipes.

他们暂时断了我们的水源,因为在修其中的一条主要的水管。

We were cut off in the middle of our(telephone)conversation.

我们(电)话还没完,就被掐断了。(这可能是偶然的事,也可能是电话接线员故意的行为。)

cut someone off 阻挡某人使其不能逃到安全地带(常用于指潮水围困,特别是用被动态时):

We were cut off by the tide and had to be rescued by boat.

我们被潮水困住了,只好由小船搭救出来。

be cut off(intr)被隔绝在不方便的地方(主语常是某一地方或住在某一地方的人):

You will be completely cut off if you go to live in that village because there is a bus only once a week.

你要是去住在那个村里,就会与世隔绝了,因为那里每周只有一班公共汽车。

cut out(tr)

(a)从布、纸等上弄下所需形状:

When I am making a dress I mark the cloth with chalk and then cut itout.(cut out the dress/cut the dress out)

我缝衣服时先用白粉在布上画出样子,然后再剪下。

Young people often cut out photographs of their favourite pop stars and stick them to the walls.

年轻人常把最喜欢的流行歌手的相片剪下来贴在墙上。

(b)略去,排除,不再继续:

If you want to get thin you must cut out sugar.(cut it out)

你要是想瘦点,就得不吃糖。

be cut out for(tr)特别适合于……(用于指人,又常用于否定句中):

His father got him a job in a bank but it soon became clear that he was not cut out for that kind of work.

他爸爸给他在银行里找了一个工作,但是不久就可以清楚地看出来,他不适合干那种工作。

cut up(tr) 切、割、剪成碎片:

They cut down the tree and cut it up for firewood.(cut the tree up/cut up the tree

他们把树砍倒并劈碎当柴火了。

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