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pay

pay back(tr),pay someone back(tr/intr) 还给,付还:

I must pay back the money that I borrowed.(pay the money back/pay itback)

我必须还清借的钱。

I must pay back Mr Pitt.(pay Mr Pitt back/pay him back)

我必须还皮特先生的钱。

I must pay Mr Pitt back the money he lent me.(pay him back the money/pay it back to him)

我必须还皮特先生借给我的钱。

pay someone back/out 算账,复仇,报复:

I'll pay you back for this.

这件事我要跟你算账。(报复你给我造成的损失。)

pay up(intr)付清所欠的钱(常暗示付款者并不乐意):

Unless you pay up I shall tell my solicitor to write to you.

除非你付清欠款,否则我要叫我的律师给你写信。

pick

pick out(tr) 选择,将……同其他的区别开来:

Here are six rings.Pick out the one you like best.(pick it out)这里有六枚戒指。选出你最喜欢的一枚。

In an identity parade the witness has to try to pick out the criminal from

a group of about eight men.(pick the criminal out/pick him out)

在(警察局)辨认罪犯时,证人得试着从约八个人的一组中挑出罪犯来。

I know that you are in this photograph but I can't pick you out.

我知道这张照片里有你,可是我认不出是哪一个。

pick up(tr)

(a)扶起,抱起,拾起某人或物(常是从地上或从椅上或桌上):

He picked up the child and carried him into the house.(picked the child up)

他抱起孩子并把他抱进了屋里了。

She scatters toys all over the floor and I have to pick them up.

她把玩具抛撒得到处都是,我得给拾起来。

(b)(乘车)来接:

I won't have time to come to your house but I could pick you up at theend of your road.

我会没有时间到你家来,但是我可以到你家马路尽头接你。

The coach stops at the principal hotels to pick up tourists,but only if they arrange this in advance.(pick tourists up/pick them up)

大客车到各主要的旅馆来接观光者,但条件是必须事先安排好。

The crew of the wrecked yacht were picked up by helicopter.

失事的游艇上的船员们被直升机救起了。

(c)接收到无线电讯号:

Their SOS was picked up by another ship,which informed the life boat head quarters.

他们的呼救讯号被另一条船收到了,后者通知了救生艇总部。

(d)以廉价购得,不费力地学会:

Sometimes you pick up wonderful bargains in these markets.

在这些市场上你有时能买到很好的便宜货。

Children usually pick up foreign languages very quickly.

儿童通常能很快地学会外语。

point

point out(tr) 指示,指给……看:

As we drove through the city the guide pointed out the most importantbuildings.(pointed the buildings out/pointed them out)

我们乘车通过市区时,导游把最重要的建筑物指给我们看。

pull

pull down(tr) 拆毁(指建筑物):

Everywhere elegant old buildings are being pulled down and mediocremodern erections are being put up.(pull down houses/pull them down)

到处都在拆毁美好的旧建筑,修建平庸的新建筑。

pull off(tr) 搞成功(宾语常用it):

Much to our surprise he pulled off the deal.(pulled it off)

使我们很惊讶的是,他居然把这笔交易搞成功了。

pull through(tr/intr) 病愈,使人病愈:

We thought she was going to die but her own will-power pulled herthrough.(tr)

我们本以为她要死了,但是她自己的意志力帮助她活了过来。(及物动词)

He is very ill but he'll pull through if we look after him carefully.(intr)

他病得很厉害,但是如果我们仔细照料他,他会病愈的。(不及物动词)

pull up(intr) (车辆)停下:

A lay-by is a space at the side of a main road,where drivers can pull up ifthey want a rest.

路边停车处是干道沿线供想休息的司机停车的地方。

put

put aside/by(tr) 保留以供将来使用(常指钱,而且前者常指为了某种目的而把钱存起来):

He puts aside £50 a month to pay for his summer holiday.(puts itaside)

他每个月省下50镑存着,以备暑假用。

Don't spend all your salary.Try to put something by each month.

别把薪水都花了。尽量每个月存下一点。

put away(tr) 整齐地收好(如放在抽屉或柜橱里):

Put your toys away,children;it's bedtime.(put away the toys/putthem away)

孩子们,把玩具放好;该去睡了。

put something back 放回原处,放到该放的地方:

When you've finished with the book put it back on the shelf.

你看完这本书后,把它放回书架上。

put back a clock/watch 把时针往回拨(有时是一种比喻,指恢复过去的习俗):

Mother:Your father and I will arrange a marriage for you when the time comes.

母亲:到了时候,你爸爸和我会给你安排婚事的。

Daughter:You're trying to put the clock back,mother.Parents don'tarrange marriages these days!(put back the clock/put it back)

女儿:妈妈,你是想恢复过去的那一套。眼下当父母的不再为儿女安排婚事了!

put down(tr)

(a)放下(pick up的反义词):

He picked up the saucepan and put it down at once because the handlewas almost red-hot.(put the saucepan down/put it down)

他拿起了锅,马上又把它放下了,因为锅柄差不多都烧红了。

(b)镇压起义,平息一次运动:

Troops were used to put down the rebellion.(put the rebellion down/putit down)

动用了军队镇压起义。

(c)写下来:

Put down his phone number before you forget it.(put the number down/put it down)

把他的电话号码写下来,别等忘了。

Customer(to shop assistant):I'll take that one.Please put it down to me/to my account.

顾客(对店员):我买那一个。请记在我的账上。

put something down to(tr) 认为是由于……:

The children wouldn't answer him,but he wasn't annoyed as he put itdown to shyness.

孩子们不肯回答,但是他不恼,因为他认为这是因为孩子们害羞。

She hasn't been well since she came to this country;I put it down to theclimate.

自从来到这个国家以后她一直身体不好。我认为是由于气候的缘故。

put forward a suggestion/proposal etc.提出建议等:

The older members of the committee are inclined to veto any suggestions put forward by the younger ones.(put a suggestion forward/put it forward)

委员会的老成员们趋向于否决年轻成员们提出的任何建议。

put forward/on clocks and watches 把钟表往前拨(put forward 是 put back 的反义词):

In March people in England put their clocks forward/on an hour.When summer time ends they put them back an hour.

英国人在3月份把时针向前拨一小时。夏时制结束时他们又把时针拨回一小时。

put in a claim 提出权利要求:

He put in a claim for compensation because he had lost his luggage in the train crash.

因为他在火车撞车事故中丢失了行李,他提出了赔偿损失的要求。

put in for a job/a post 求职:

They are looking for a lecturer in geography.Why don't you put in forit?

他们在征聘一位地理讲师。你为什么不去求职?

put off an action 推迟某种行动:

Some people put off making their wills till it is too late.

有些人推迟立遗嘱的事,后来就来不及了。

I'll put off my visit to Scotland till the weather is warmer.(put my visit off/put it off)

我要把到苏格兰去访问的事推迟到天气转暖以后。

put a person off

(a)告诉某人推迟来访:

I had invited some guests to dinner but I had to put them off because apower cut prevented me from cooking anything.

我本来邀请一些客人来吃饭,但是不得不告诉他们先别来了,因为停电使我无法做菜。

(b)拒绝或推阻某人:

I wanted to see the exhibition but the queue put me off.

我本想去看展览会,但是排队的人太多,使我不想看了。

Many people who want to come to England are put off by the stories they hear about English weather.

许多想游览英国的人因为听说英国天气不好就不来了。

put on a light/gas or electric fire/radio 打开(电灯/煤气灶或电气灶/收音机):

Put on the light.(put the light on/put it on)

打开灯。

put on a play 上演一出戏:

The students usually put on a play at the end of the year.

学生们一般都在年终上演一出戏。

put on an expression 做出某种表情:

He put on an air of in difference,which didn't deceive anybody for a moment.

他装出漠不关心的样子,这一点也骗不了任何人。

put on clothes/glasses/jewellery 穿,戴(反义词是take off):

He put on a black coat so that he would be in conspicuous.(put a coat on/put it on)

他穿了一件黑外套,为了让自己不显眼。

She put on her glasses and took the letter from my hand.

她戴上了眼镜,拿过我手里的信。

put out any kind of light or fire 熄灭(灯或火):

Put out that light.(put the light out/put it out)

把那灯关了。

put someone out 使某人不便:

He is very selfish.He wouldn't put himself out for anyone.

他很自私。他绝不会为任何人出点力。

be put out 感到不快:

She was very put out when I said that her new summer dress didn't suit her.

我告诉她那件新的夏装不适合她时,她非常不高兴。

put up(tr)

(a)建起(房屋、纪念物、雕像等):

He put up a shed in the garden.(put a shed up/put it up)

他在花园里盖了一个棚子。

(b)提价:

When the importation of foreign tomatoes was forbidden,home growers put up their prices.(put their prices up/put them up)

禁止进口外国的西红柿以后,国内种西红柿的人就提高价钱了。

put someone up(宾语常位于up之前) 暂时留某人住下:

If you come to Paris I will put you up.You needn't look for a hotel.

如果你到巴黎来,可以住在我那儿。你不必去找旅馆了。

put someone up to something(常指某种诡计)怂恿某人去做某事,告诉某人如何做某事:

He couldn't have thought of that trick by himself.Someone must have put him up to it.

他自己是想不出那个计谋的。一定是有人教他这么做的。

put up with(tr) 容忍:

We had to put up with a lot of noise when the children were at home.

我们不得不忍受孩子们在家时的吵闹。

明明白白读英语 轻轻松松记单词

You can memorize words in an efficient way if you pronounce them reasonably. Say words correctly, and you will learn them easily. Correct pronunciation means correct spelling of the words. English spelling is not good to guide its pronunciation. But spelling and pronunciation have closed relationship. They match each other perfectly. Sometimes we can pronounce a word according to its spelling. English pronunciation can also guide its spelling. This is a two-way communication.
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