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lay

lay in(tr)为自己准备足够的货品等以使其维持一段时间,储备(食物):

She expected a shortage of dried fruit so she laid in a large supply.

她预期果脯会有短缺,所以囤积了一大批。

lay out(tr)为花园、建筑等安排平面设计:

Le Notre laid out the gardens at Versailles.(laid the gardens out/laidthem out)

凡尔赛宫的园林是勒·诺特尔设计的。

lay up(tr)小心地存储以备将来用(指船只等):

Before he went to Brazil for a year,he laid up his car,as he didn't want to sell it.(laid it up)

他要到巴西去一年,在此以前他把车子储存起来了,因为他不想把车卖掉。

be laid up(of a person)因病卧床不起:

She was laid up for weeks with a slipped disk.

她因腰椎间盘突出,卧床数周之久。

lead

lead up to(tr)为……做好准备,引出(比喻的用法):

He wanted to borrow my binoculars,but he didn't say so at once.He led up to it by talking about birdwatching.

他想借我的望远镜,可又不直接说。他借着谈起观察鸟类的话题引出这件事。

leave

leave off(常为intr)停止(做某件事):

He was playing his trumpet but I told him to leave off because the neighbours were complaining about the noise.

他在吹喇叭,可是我告诉他别吹了,因为邻居们都在抱怨太闹了。

leave out(tr)省略,删去:

We'll sing our school song leaving out the last ten verses.

我们唱校歌要省略最后十节。

They gave each competitor a number;but they left out No.13 as no one wanted to have it.(left No.13 out/left it out)

他们给每个参赛者一个号码;可是他们把13号隔过去了,因为没有人要这个号码。

let

let down(tr)放下来:

When she lets her hair down it reaches her waist.(lets down her hair/lets it down)

她把头发放下来时,头发长抵腰际。

You can let a coat down(lengthen it)by using the hem.

你可以利用下摆把一件外衣放长。

let someone down(宾语在 down 之前)行动不像某人所期待的,未能执行某一协议,辜负某人:

I promised him that you would do the work.Why did you let me down by doing so little?

我答应他说你会做这工作的。你为什么干得这么少而让我失望呢?

He said he'd come to help me;but he let me down.He never turned up.他本来说过要来帮我;可是他把我涮了。他根本就没有来。

let in(tr)允许进入,放进来:

They let in the ticket-holders.(let the ticket-holders in/let them in)

他们把持票人放进去了。

If you mention my name to the door-keeper he will let you in.

你要是对看门人提我的名字,他会放你进去的。

let someone off(宾语在off之前)不予惩罚:

I thought that the magistrate was going to fine me but he let me off.

我本以为法官会罚我,可是他放了我一马。

let out(tr)

(a)放宽(指衣服):

That boy is getting fatter.You'll have to let out his clothes.(let his clothes out/let them out)

那男孩子长胖了。你得把他的衣服放宽一些。

(b)允许走开,放出:

He opened the door and let out the dog.(let the dog out/let it out)

他开门把狗放出去了。

live

live down a bad reputation 小心做人以使人忘记自己的不良声誉:

He has never quite been able to live down a reputation for drinking too much which he got when he was a young man.(live it down)

他年轻时有酗酒的恶名,至今未能完全挽回声誉。

live in(intr)住在工作的地方(主要用于仆人):

Advertisement:Cook wanted.£140 a week.Live in.

广告:招聘厨师。周薪140镑。供住宿。

live on(tr)以……为主食:

It is said that for a certain period of his life Byron lived on vinegar and potatoes in order to keep thin.

据说拜仑曾有一段时期为了不发胖靠吃马铃薯和酸醋过日子。

live up tp(tr)维持某种道德、经济或行为标准:

He had high ideals and tried to live up to them.

他有崇高的理想,并力求身体力行。(他试图按照自己的理想而行动。)

lock

lock up a house(tr/intr;常为intr)把房子所有的门都锁上:

People usually lock up before they go to bed at night.

人们夜晚就寝前一般都锁好门窗。

lock up a person or thing 锁在……之内:

She locked up the papers in her desk.(locked the papers up/locked themup)

她把文件锁在书桌抽屉里了。

look

look after(tr)照料:

Will you look after my parrot when I am away?

我不在的时候,你能否替我照看一下我的鹦鹉?

look ahead(intr)考虑未来以便为之做准备:

It's time you looked ahead and made plans for your retirement.

是你为以后想一想并对退休后的生活做出安排的时候了。

look at(tr)看,望:

He looked at the clock and said,‘It is midnight.'

他看了看钟,说:“午夜了。”

look back(intr),look back on(tr)回顾:

Looking back,I don't suppose we are any worse now than people were a hundred years ago.

看一看过去,我不认为我们比100年前的人更坏。

Perhaps some day it will be pleasant to look back on these things.

可能将来有一天我们回顾这些事时会感到愉快的。

look back/round(intr)向背后看(字面意义):

Don't look round now but the woman behind us is wearing the most extraordinary clothes.

现在别回头看,虽然我们后面那个妇女穿的衣服特别怪。

look down on(tr)轻视,看不起:

Small boys often look down on little girls and refuse to play with them.

小男孩常常看不起小女孩并拒绝同她们一起玩。

She thinks her neighbours look down on her a bit because she's never been abroad.

她认为她的邻居们因她从来没有出过国而有点瞧不起她。

look for(tr)搜寻,探索,找:

I have lost my watch will you help me to look for it?

我把表丢了。你能不能帮我找一下?

look forward to(tr)盼望,期待(常带一个动名词):

I am looking forward to her arrival/to seeing her.

我在期待着她的到来/看到她。

look in(intr)短暂地拜访某人(常不预先告诉对方,相当于call in):

I'll look in this evening to see how she is.

我今晚去探望她一下,看她身体如何。

look into(tr)调查:

There is a mystery about his death and the police are looking into it.

他死得有点蹊跷,警方正在进行调查。

look on…as(tr)考虑为,认为,看成:

Most people look on a television set as an essential piece of furniture.

多数人都把电视机看成是必不可少的家具。

These children seem to look on their teachers as their enemies.

这些孩子好像把老师视为敌人。

look on(intr)旁观:

Two men were fighting.The rest were looking on.

两个男人在打架。其余的人在袖手旁观。

look on(tr), look out on(tr)(用于指房屋或窗户)面向,朝着……方向:

His house looks(out)on to the sea.

他的房子面临大海。

look out(intr)保持警惕,提防:

‘Look out!There's a lorry coming!'

(对要过马路的人)“留神!有辆卡车开过来了!”

look out for(tr)警惕地看着以等待某物出现(常是相当明显的事物):

I am going to the party too,so look out for me.

我也要去参加聚会,你留意着我好了。

look over(tr)以批评的眼光看,重新阅读,迅速核对改正(同 go over 相似,但不如后者彻底):

look over what you've written before handing it to the examiner.

先把你写的看一遍,再交给考官。

I'm going to look over a house that I'm thinking of buying.

我打算去看一下我想买的一幢房子。

look through(tr)察看若干东西,常为了挑选其中几个,翻阅报纸或书籍以寻找自己需要的内容:

Look through your old clothes and see if you have anything to give away.

把你的旧衣服翻一下,看有没有可以送掉的。

I'd like you to look through these photographs and try to pick out the man you saw.

我希望你把这些相片翻看一下,试着从中找出你看见的那个人。

He looked through the books and decided that he wouldn't like them.

他把书翻阅了一下,认定他不会喜欢它们的。

look through someone 对某人看而又仿佛看不见的样子(作为一种故意的无礼表示):

She has to be polite to me in the office but when we meet outside she always looks through me.

她在办公室里不得不对我有礼貌,可是在外面遇到我的时候总是对我视而不见。

look up an address/a name/word/train/telehone number etc.

在地址本/词典/时间表/电话簿等中查找:

If you don't know the meaning of the word look it up.(look up the word/look the word up)

你要是不知道这个词的意思,就查一下。

I must look up the time of your train.

我得查一下你坐的火车的时刻。

look somebody up 拜访(被访者常是住得较远、不常见到的,

因此与look in不同,后者暗示被访者住得很近):

Any time you come to London do look me up.

你无论什么时候到伦敦来,一定要来看我。

I haven't seen Tom for ages.I must find out where he lives and look himup.(look Tome up/look up Tom)

我很久没见到汤姆了。我得探问一下他住在哪里,去看他一下。

look up(intr) 有进步,变得更好(主语常是things情况/business市面/world affairs世界局势/the weather天气等一种不太确指的事):

Business has been very bad lately but things are beginning to look up now.

近期市面有一阵子很不兴旺,可是情况在开始好转。

look someone up and down 轻蔑地将某人从头打量到脚:

The policeman looked the drunk man up and down very deliberately before replying to his question.

警察非常有意地从头到脚打量了那醉汉,这才回答他的问题。

look up to(tr) 尊敬,敬仰:

School boys usually look up to great athletes.

男学生常很崇拜了不起的体育明星。

明明白白读英语 轻轻松松记单词

You can memorize words in an efficient way if you pronounce them reasonably. Say words correctly, and you will learn them easily. Correct pronunciation means correct spelling of the words. English spelling is not good to guide its pronunciation. But spelling and pronunciation have closed relationship. They match each other perfectly. Sometimes we can pronounce a word according to its spelling. English pronunciation can also guide its spelling. This is a two-way communication.
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